60-Second Civics

Thursday, August 18
   Daily civics quiz
In Virginia, what body was composed of representatives elected by the Virginia colonists?

 
 
 
 

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About the Podcast: 60-Second Civics is a daily podcast that provides a quick and convenient way for listeners to learn about our nation’s government, the Constitution, and our history. The podcast explores themes related to civics and government, the constitutional issues behind the headlines, and the people and ideas that formed our nation’s history and government.

60-Second Civics is produced by the Center for Civic Education. The show's content is primarily derived from the Center’s education for democracy curricula, including We the People: The Citizen and the Constitution, Foundations of Democracy, and Elements of Democracy.

Subscribe: It's easy to subscribe! Listen on YouTubeiTunes or Stitcher or subscribe via RSS.

Get Involved: Join the conversation about each episode on Twitter. Or you can contact the show by emailing Mark Gage. Let me know what you think!

You Can Help: 60-Second Civics is supported by private donations. You can help keep the podcasts coming by donating, buying an ebook, or by writing a nice review in iTunes to help others discover the show. We love our listeners. You are the reason we created the podcast. Thank you for your kind support!

Music:
The theme music for 60-Second Civics is provided by Cheryl B. Engelhardt. You can find her online at cbemusic.com. The song featured on the podcast is Cheryl B. Engelhardt's "Complacent," which you purchase on iTunes, along with all of Cheryl's music.


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60-Second Civics: Episode 4677, Congress and the Impeachment Power: Balance of Powers, Part 9
Evidence that the Framers intended to create a predominant Congress is apparent by how they bestowed the branch with the power to impeach the president and other high officials in the national government. Learn more in this episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4676, The Framers Intended Congress to Dominate: Balance of Powers, Part 8
The Framers of the Constitution intended Congress to be the dominant branch of the national government.??Why was that? Listen to learn more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4675, Limits on Each Branch of Government: Balance of Powers, Part 7
The Framers of the Constitution created a system of separated and shared powers and checks and balances to limit and control the use of power by governmental institutions and to prevent the possibility of tyranny. Learn more of each branch's ability to check the use of power by the other institutions in this episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4674, How the Supreme Court Shares Power: Balance of Powers, Part 6
The Framers of the Constitution wanted to prevent a tyrannical executive in the presidency and a tyranny of a majority in Congress. But they were also careful to limit the power of the courts. Learn how in this episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4673, How the President Shares Power: Balance of Powers, Part 5
The Framers of the Constitution made each branch of the national government share some of its primary responsibilities and powers with one or more of the other branches. For example, the president and the executive branch have the primary responsibility for carrying out and enforcing laws. Learn more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4672, How Congress Shares Power: Balance of Powers, Part 4
The Framers of the Constitution wanted to limit the power of the legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the national government. So, they made each of them share some of its primary responsibilities and accompanying powers with one or more of the other branches. Listen for more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4671, How to Prevent Tyranny: Balance of Powers, Part 3
The Framers of the Constitution were concerned about two things: First, the emergence of a tyrannical executive in the presidency and second, a tyranny of a majority in Congress. Learn how they design a system of government to address these concerns in this episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4670, Congress as the Predominant Branch: Balance of Powers, Part 2
Which branch of the federal government has the most power? We explore the intentions of the Framers for how powered was to be distributed among the branches in this episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4669, A Constitutional World Turned Upside Down: Balance of Powers, Pt 1
Today we begin a special series of podcasts to examine the question of whether power in the federal government is appropriately balanced between Congress and the executive and judicial branches. We will also learn how power has shifted from Congress to the executive and judicial branches of government and consider the implications of this shift.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4668, Public and Private Happiness: We Hold These Truths to Be Self-Evident, Part 10
Many of our choices have social consequences and therefore have a civic dimension when they enhance or subtract from public happiness. Thus the pursuit of happiness must refer both to public and to private happiness.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4667, Self-control Is a Key to Happiness: We Hold These Truths to Be Self-Evident, Part 9
Every day we make numerous choices in deciding what course of action will add to our well-being and what will make us happy. Making these choices is the pursuit of happiness. Learn more about this important concept in this podcast!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4666, Origin of the andquot;Pursuit of Happinessandquot;: We Hold These Truths to Be Self-Evident, Part 8
In the Declaration of Independence, Thomas Jefferson announced that every human being has ???certain unalienable rights,??? among which are those to ???life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.????? But what did Jefferson mean by ???the pursuit of happiness????

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4665, Rights That Cannot Be Taken Away: We Hold These Truths to Be Self-Evident, Part 7
One key to understanding “inalienable” rights--as distinguished from ordinary, “alienable” rights--is found by turning to one of Thomas Jefferson's rough drafts of the Declaration of Independence. Listen to learn more about the foundations of your rights that cannot be taken away!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4664, Inalienable Rights: We Hold These Truths to Be Self-Evident, Part 6
The Declaration of Independence states that “all Men are … endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights.” But what does “unalienable Rights”, or as it was intended “inalienable Rights” mean? Learn more in this episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4663, Stoicism, Christianity, and Moral Equality: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 19
On Friday, we discussed the origins of Americans' sense of political equality, but our founders also possessed a strong sense of moral equality. Indeed, the idea of the moral equality of human beings has ancient origins. Listen to today's episode for more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4662, All Men Are Created Equal: We Hold These Truths to Be Self-Evident, Part 4
The Declaration of Independence states that among the andquot;truthsandquot; that Americans hold to be andquot;self-evidentandquot; is that andquot;all Men are created equal.andquot; But what was meant by this statement? Learn more today!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4661, The American Mind: We Hold These Truths to Be Self-Evident, Part 3
Thomas Jefferson said that his purpose in writing the Declaration of Independence was to express a shared understanding of the American mind. Learn more about this term and its significance today!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4660, Self-Evident Truths: We Hold These Truths to Be Self-Evident, Part 2
That andquot;all Men are created equalandquot; and andquot;endowed by their Creator with Certain unalienable Rightsandquot; was self-evident to Americans at the time of the writing of the Declaration of Independence. Why was this? Learn more about the foundations of our self-evident truths.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4659, Independence Day: We Hold These Truths to Be Self-Evident, Part 1
Independence Day is a time to remember and appreciate our heritage of a democratic form of government and to reflect on our country's fundamental principles. Over the few episodes, 60-Second Civics will examine some of the fundamental ideas about government that are contained in the Declaration of Independence, which was passed by Congress on July 2, 1776, and issued on July 4.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4658, The Future for LGBTQ+ Rights: LGBTQ+ Pride Week Series, Part 7
There's a number of questions that surround the rights of transgender Americans and surround the rights of other parts of the LGBTQ spectrum that are going to continue to be very important when it comes to this particular social justice movement.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4657, Obergefell v. Hodges: LGBTQ+ Pride Week Series, Part 6
There's a long history of federal cases, like Romer v. Evans and Lawrence v. Texas, that eventually lead up to Windsor v. U.S. as well as Obergefell v. Hodges, which are really the federal Supreme Court marriage equality cases that all really focus on two particular elements of the U.S. constitution.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4656, The Defense of Marriage Act: LGBTQ+ Pride Week Series, Part 5
Just like we see earlier in the courts, and we see in the legislatures, the executive branch plays a crucial role in the LGBTQ rights movement, particularly when it comes to marriage equality.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4655, Early Legislative Victories for LGBTQ+ Rights: LGBTQ+ Pride Week Series, Part 4
Like the courts' role, the legislative branch has played a pivotal role in the LGBTQ rights movement. New York, one of the nation's largest states, was a site for an early legislative victory, and that legislation set a standard for legislative action around the country.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4654, Goodridge: The Cinderella Moment for Marriage Equality, LGBTQ+ Pride Week Series, Part 3
Why was the 2003 Massachusetts decision in Goodridge v. Dept. of Public Health such an important moment, particularly when it comes to the role of courts in social justice movements? Find out more from Christopher R. Riano about this critical court case in the LGBTQ+ rights movement.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4653, Laying the Groundwork for LGBTQ+ Rights: LGBTQ+ Pride Week Series, Part 2
We're joined again today by Christopher R. Riano, the president of the Center for Civic Education and co-author, with William Eskridge, of Marriage Equality: From Outlaws to In-laws, winner of the American Bar Association's Silver Gavel Award. We ask him: What were some early LGBTQ+ rights questions that the community faced, particularly following what happened at Stonewall?

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4652, What's Significant About the Stonewall Riots? LGBTQ+ Pride Week Series, Part 1
What were the Stonewall Riots and why are they seen as such an important milestone in the LGBTQ+ rights movement? Find out today as we launch a special weeklong series of LGBTQ+ Pride Week podcasts with our special guest, Christopher R. Riano, the president of the Center for Civic Education and co-author, along with William Eskridge, of Marriage Equality: From Outlaws to In-laws.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4651, Promoting a Healthy Democracy: Building Your Skills as a Citizen, Part 5
Of all the duties of citizens, perhaps none is more important than doing your part to ensure the healthy functioning of American constitutional democracy. What can you do to support the survival of our constitutional democracy? Find out today!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4650, Effective Participation: Building Your Skills as a Citizen, Part 4
A fundamental aspect of citizenship is participating in the civic affairs of the community and the nation. However, participation alone is not enough. It's important to participate in an informed, thoughtful, and effective manner. How do you do this? Find out in this episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4649, Respecting Individual Worth and Human Dignity: Building Your Skills as a Citizen, Part 3
One key to fulfilling your responsibilities as an American citizen is to respect the value and human dignity of all people. This means treating other people with respect.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4648, Assuming the Responsibilities of a Citizen: Building Your Skills as a Citizen, Part 2
Being a citizen of the United States means fulfilling certain personal, political, and economic responsibilities. Learn what these include and how you can take on these responsibilities in this episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4647, Becoming an Independent Member of Society: Building Your Skills as a Citizen, Part 1
Today we launch a special series on the five civic dispositions of the National Assessment for Educational Progress Civics Framework. The first civic disposition stresses the importance of becoming an independent member of society. Listen for more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4646, Juneteenth
In celebration of Juneteenth, we invited Dr. Vicki Ross-Norris back on the podcast to discuss the rich history and importance of this holiday for Americans.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4645, Challenging the System: Active Citizenship, Part 5
The American system of government is built on popular sovereignty. However, there have been times in our nation's history when the government did not pursue the common good. Part of being an active citizen is knowing when and how to challenge the system. Here are some principles that can help you.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4644, Serving Your Country: Active Citizenship, Part 4
When you serve your country, you are promoting the common good; that is, the good of everyone in the United States. There are several ways to serve your country. Listen to learn a few!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4643, Political Participation: Active Citizenship, Part 3
Elections have consequences. If you want a say in the political future of our nation, it is up to you to get involved. Luckily, there are many ways to accomplish this. Listen to learn how!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4642, Being an Active Citizen: Active Citizenship, Part 2
Active citizenship means getting involved in the life of your community and nation so that you can help determine the country's future. But how do you do this? Find out more today!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4641, Being an Informed Citizen: Active Citizenship, Part 1
Most American citizens 18 years of age and older have the right to vote and choose our representatives who make our laws. But it is your obligation to cast an informed and responsible vote. Listen for more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4640, Security: Digital Citizenship, Part 8
The online world is unfortunately full of people who would love to compromise your device and use it for their own purposes. So what can you do to stay secure online? Learn some simple tips today!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 469, Staying Safe: Digital Citizenship, Part 7
The internet and social media can be great places to spend your time, but they also present certain dangers, especially for young people. It's up to you to be aware of your own personal safety online, but there are a few commonsense recommendations that can help. Listen for these tips!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4638, Privacy: Digital Citizenship, Part 6
When you use digital technology, much of your personal information is collected by the companies that run them. You have a right to privacy, but you should also take steps to protect yourself. Listen for more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4637, Responsibility: Digital Citizenship, Part 5
An important part of digital citizenship is taking responsibility for your actions on digital platforms. Part of this is knowing when to engage and when to pull back. Today we share some simple tips for acting with responsibility online!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4636, Full Participation and Equal Access to Technology: Digital Citizenship, Part 4
What does it mean to participate fully in digital civic life? One factor to consider is whether all Americans have equal access to digital technology. But what barriers exist? Listen to learn more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4635, All About the Benjamins: Digital Citizenship: Part 3
Smartphones and other digital devices make it easy to buy things quickly, but it's important to protect yourself when shopping online. Learn strategies for shopping smart online in today's episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4634, Doing the Right Thing Online: Digital Citizenship: Part 2
A big part of digital citizenship is doing the right thing online; that is, respecting yourself and everyone else you interact with. Learn how to do this in today's episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4633, What Is Digital Citizenship? Digital Citizenship, Part 1
Today's young people face a few unique challenges interacting with digital media. Our new series unpacks how to safely navigate these challenges while ensuring everyone's rights are respected and that everyone is acting with responsibility.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4632, Our Country's Aim Will Remain True Towards Justice: Justice Paula Nakayama, Part 6
In light of the recent rise in violence toward Asian Americans, Justice Nakayama of the Hawai'i Supreme Court emphasizes that we must encourage everybody to learn, understand and deeply appreciate and embrace the rule of law in our country.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4631, What Does a Civic and Constitutional Education Mean to You?: Justice Paula Nakayama, Part 5
In today's podcast, we ask Justice Nakayama: What does a civic and constitutional education mean to you? And, why have you dedicated so many years to ensuring greater access to civics for more Americans?

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4630, Learning About Your Role As an American: Justice Paula Nakayama, Part 4
A well-informed citizenry is the cornerstone of our democracy, which is why Justice Nakayama believes it's essential for all Americans to learn about their roles and responsibilities as citizens.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4629, Why Should Young People Consider Public Service?: Justice Paula Nakayama, Part 3
andquot;When you are a public servant, it is important to realize that you are indeed serving the public. I think about that all the time, and I consider it a higher calling.andquot; In our episode, Justice Nakayama shares her perspective on the value of public service.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4628, One of the First Women on the Hawai'i Supreme Court: Justice Paula Nakayama, Part 2
Today, we ask Justice Nakayama: What is it like to be one of the first women to serve on the Hawai'i Supreme Court and one of the few Asian American women serving as a state supreme court justice? While Justice Nakayama shares times in which she faced discrimination, she nonetheless believes that andquot;being on the Supreme Court is an honor and a privilege.andquot;

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4627, How Did You Become a Justice on the Hawai'i Supreme Court?: Justice Paula Nakayama, Part 1
Today, we start a new series with Associate Justice of the Hawai'i Supreme Court, Paula Nakayama. In our first episode, Justice Nakayama shares how a lot of hard work and a little luck helped her achieve one of the highest positions in the legal profession.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4626, George Washington's Rules of Civility: The Presidency of George Washington, Pt 13
Before he reached the age of sixteen, George Washington wrote down one hundred and ten Rules of Civility and Decent Behaviour in Company and Conversation, which formed Washington's character at an early age. Listen for more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4625, George Washington's Views on Slavery: The Presidency of George Washington, Pt 12
George Washington was a leader of a revolution that was one of history's greatest advances for individual liberty. Yet throughout his life, he denied liberty to others as a slaveholder and gained wealth from their labor. Learn more about his contradictory positions in today's episode.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4624, George Washington Warns Against Party and Faction: The Presidency of George Washington, Pt 11
In his Farewell Address, George Washington warned against the dangers of party and faction.??Listen to learn more about why he did this in today's episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4623, How George Washington Established the Authority of the Presidency: The Presidency of George Washington, Pt 10
George Washington's vigorous policies established the president as an energetic leader, not a ceremonial figurehead. But he was careful to stay within the bounds of the Constitution. Learn how Washington established his authority in this episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4622, George Washington Relied on the Advice of Others: The Presidency of George Washington, Pt 9
As president, George Washington understood his own limitations and was not reluctant to rely upon the counsel of others. Learn more how he leaned on the expertise of others for great success in today's episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4621, George Washington as President: The Presidency of George Washington, Pt 8
As president, George Washington demonstrated the value of a strong executive in the hands of a trustworthy person. He stayed within the bounds of presidential authority outlined by the Constitution and the acts of the First Congress organizing the executive branch. Listen for more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4620, George Washington, the Reluctant President: The Presidency of George Washington, Pt 7
Persuaded that his election would help cement support for the new government, George Washington reluctantly agreed to serve as the nation's first president. Learn more about his start as president!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4619, A Strong Executive: The Presidency of George Washington, Pt 6
At the Philadelphia Convention, which drafted the new Constitution for the United States, the delegates assumed that George Washington would become the nation's first president, and this encouraged them to propose strong, wide-ranging powers for the executive. Listen for more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4618, George Washington on Patriotism: The Presidency of George Washington, Pt 5
From the very beginning of the Revolution, George Washington was a nationalist. His country was America, not Virginia, and what America could become through a strong union of the states. Learn more about his patriotism in today's episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4617, Washington's Support for Civilian Government: The Presidency of George Washington, Pt 4
George Washington strongly supported the principle that the military is subordinate to civilian government. Listen to learn more about his support for civilian control of the government!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4616, The Newburgh Conspiracy: The Presidency of George Washington, Pt 3
Washington never lost sight of the fact that his authority came from Congress, and that the purpose of the army was to carry out the will of the civil government, especially with confronted with the Newburgh Conspiracy. Learn more in today's episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4615, George Washington the Soldier: The Presidency of George Washington, Pt 2
As a soldier, George Washington demonstrated enough courage and decisiveness to command troops during several military actions. Listen to learn more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4614, George Washington's Early Life: The Presidency of George Washington, Pt 1
On today's podcast, we begin a short series on George Washington, who was perhaps the most influential leader in the creation of the American nation. Listen for more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4613, Separated Powers and Parliamentary Systems: We the People with Dr. Scott Casper Pt. 11
In the final episode of our series with Dr. Scott Casper, we ask him what are the strengths and weaknesses of a government with separated branches vs. a parliamentary system?

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4612, Objections to the Constitution: We the People with Dr. Scott Casper Pt. 10
While the Constitution is now the respected foundational document for the United States, we ask Dr. Casper: What were the principal objections of opponents of the Constitution?

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4611, The Founders' Focus on the Legislative Branch: We the People with Dr. Scott Casper Pt. 9
Why did the Founders spend more time dealing with the legislative branch than the executive branch? Find out in today's episode from the We the People Open Course featuring Dr. Scott Casper.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4610, The System of Separated and Shared Powers: We the People with Dr. Scott Casper Pt. 8
In this episode, Dr. Scott Casper of the American Antiquarian Society assesses the system of separated and shared powers created in the U.S. Constitution.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4609, Election of the President by the Electoral College: We the People with Dr. Scott Casper Pt. 7
In the third part of the video, Dr. Scott Casper discusses the final type of electoral process pondered by the Framers: the Electoral College. Listen for more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4608, Election of the President by Congress: We the People Open Course with Dr. Scott Casper Pt. 6
In the second of three parts, Dr. Scott Casper discusses the second type of electoral process pondered by the Framers: Election by Congress. Listen for more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4607, Election of the President by the People: We the People Open Course with Dr. Scott Casper Pt. 5
In the first of three parts, Dr. Scott Casper discusses the first type of electoral process pondered by the Framers: Election by the people. Listen for more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4606, Designing the Judicial Branch: We the People Open Course with Dr. Scott Casper Pt. 4
What questions did the Framers address in designing the judicial branch? Check out more interviews with Dr. Scott Casper in Unit 2 of the We the People Open Course, a free online course on the U.S. Constitution at Learn.civiced.org.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4605, Designing the Executive Branch: We the People Open Course with Dr. Scott Casper Pt. 3
What questions did the Framers address in designing the executive branch? Check out more interviews with Dr. Scott Casper in Unit 2 of the We the People Open Course, a free online course on the U.S. Constitution at Learn.civiced.org.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4604, Designing the Legislative Branch: We the People Open Course with Dr. Scott Casper Pt. 2
We are once again joined by Dr. Scott Casper in an adapted series from the We the People Open Course, available at learn.civiced.org. Today we ask him: what questions did the Framers address in organizing the legislative branch?

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4603, Factors for Designing the National Government: We the People Open Course with Dr. Scott Casper Pt. 1
Today we kick off a special series adapted from the We the People Open Course, a free online course on the U.S. Constitution that you can find at Learn.civiced.org. We're joined by Dr. Scott Casper, president of the American Antiquarian Society. To start, we ask him: What questions did the Framers consider when designing the three branches of the national government?

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4602, A Just and a Lasting Peace: Abraham Lincoln and Executive Power, Part 16
By the time of Abraham Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address on March 4, 1865, the Civil War was winding down. Learn more about his hopes for a just and a lasting peace after the war!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4601, Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address: Abraham Lincoln and Executive Power, Part 15
Abraham Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, given on November 19, 1863, recognized the central importance of founding-era principles to the meaning and destiny of America. Learn more about this famous address in this episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4600, Abraham Lincoln and America's Founding Principles: Abraham Lincoln and Executive Power, Part 14
Abraham Lincoln tried to revive and renew political principles that defined America at its birth in 1776 throughout his political career. Listen to learn more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4599, The Thirteenth Amendment: Abraham Lincoln and Executive Power, Part 13
While Lincoln justified his Emancipation Proclamation as an act of military necessity, he understood that a constitutional amendment was required to abolish slavery immediately and everywhere in the United States. Learn more in this episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4598, The Emancipation Proclamation: Abraham Lincoln and Executive Power, Part 12
On September 22, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln publicly announced his Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation. It warned the Confederate rebels that unless they rejoined the Union, a final proclamation would free all slaves within the seceded states. Listen to learn more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4597, Abraham Lincoln on Slavery: Abraham Lincoln and Executive Power, Part 11
After winning the 1860 presidential election, Lincoln repeated his long-held opposition to slavery. However, he insisted that the federal government would not take action against slavery in the states where it existed. Learn more about this dissonance in this episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4596, Lincoln Takes Strong Action Against the Rebellion: Abraham Lincoln and Executive Power, Part 10
Through his executive power, Lincoln took strong action against the rebellion, including suspending the writ of habeas corpus. This decision would face opposition and challenges in the Supreme Court. Listen for more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4595, Suspending the Writ of Habeas Corpus: Abraham Lincoln and Executive Power, Part 9
At the outset of the Civil War, Abraham Lincoln suspended the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus, which is a court order directing that a prisoner be brought to court before a judge to determine whether that prisoner???s detention is lawful. Learn more about the implications of this action today!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4594, The Prize Cases: Abraham Lincoln and Executive Power, Part 8
The Prize Cases, which came before the Supreme Court in 1863, posed a constitutional test of President Abraham Lincoln's use of war powers during an emergency. Learn more about the impact of this judicial ruling!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4593, Congress Approves Lincoln's Actions: Abraham Lincoln and Executive Power, Part 7
Abraham Lincoln's andquot;Message to Congressandquot; on July 4, 1861, emphatically expressed the president's determination to defend the Union against the Confederate rebellion. He asked Congress to support his war-time policies and approve his mobilization actions.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4592, Lincoln Takes Immediate Action Against the Confederacy: Abraham Lincoln and Executive Power, Part 6
When fighting began between Confederate and Union forces in April of 1861, Abraham Lincoln acted quickly and strongly. Learn more about the implications of his approach for executive power in this episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4591, The Civil War Begins: Abraham Lincoln and Executive Power, Part 5
By the time Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated on March 4, 1861, seven slave states had seceded from the U.S. to form the Confederate States of America.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4590, Abraham Lincoln Elected President: Abraham Lincoln and Executive Power, Part 4
While Lincoln would lose in the Illinois senatorial race in 1858, he would soon go on to win the U.S. presidential election in 1860. Learn more in this episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4589, Abraham Lincoln Opposes the Kansas-Nebraska Act: Abraham Lincoln and Executive Power, Part 3
Abraham Lincoln briefly left politics after his first term as a U.S. congressman. But national controversy over the 1854 Kansas-Nebraska Act brought Lincoln back to intense political activity. Learn more about this historic act and how it kicked off Lincoln's presidential run.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4588, Abraham Lincoln Begins His Political Career: Abraham Lincoln and Executive Power, Part 2
Abraham Lincoln was largely self-taught, having less than one year of formal education. Yet, he led a successful political career. Learn more about the beginning of this career in today's episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4587, Abraham Lincoln's Early Life: Abraham Lincoln and Executive Power, Part 1
Today, we begin a brief series on Abraham Lincoln, the sixteenth president of the United States. We start by mapping his early years, which began in Kentucky on February 12, 1809.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4586, Dr. Carla Hayden's Advice to Young Women Considering Public Service: Women's History Month, Part 31
Today, we close our Women's History Month Series with our final interview with Dr. Carla Hayden, the Librarian of Congress. Dr. Hayden shares her mother's advice on the benefits of public service.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4585, Dr. Carla Hayden on Becoming the Librarian of Congress: Women's History Month, Pt 30
Dr. Carla Hayden is the first woman and African American Librarian of Congress. On today's podcast, Dr. Hayden explains why she considers herself to be an "accidental librarian" and what being a librarian means to her.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4584, Dr. Carla Hayden on Resources from the Library of Congress: Women's History Month, Pt 29
On today's episode, we had the honor of speaking with Dr. Carla Hayden, the Librarian of Congress, who explains the resources available at the Library of Congress. Dr. Hayden is the first woman and African American Librarian of Congress.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4583, Advice to Young People Considering Public Service: Women's History Month, Part 28
Today on 60-Second Civics, Judge Mae D'Agostino provides her advice to young people considering a career in public service.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4582, Judge Mae D'Agostino on Barriers to Women Entering the Legal Profession: Women's History Month, Part 27
On today's podcast, Judge Mae D'Agostino, a judge in the Northern District of New York, speaks about her belief that "more opportunities will be opening up for women in the years and months ahead" in the federal judiciary and what steps women entering the legal profession can take to better assure success in their legal career.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4581, Judge Mae D'Agostino on Serving as a U.S. District Court Judge: Women's History Month, Part 26
On this podcast, we welcome a very special guest: Judge Mae D'Agostino, a judge in the Northern District of New York. Judge D'Agostino speaks about how she came to serve in her position, and what it is like to be the first woman sitting as a judge in many of the courthouses she has presided over.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4580, The Equal Rights Amendment: Women's History Month, Part 25
The Equal Rights Amendment was first proposed in 1923. Its ratification is still in limbo, with several states having rescinded their original ratification. It says, andquot;Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.andquot;

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4579, The Nineteenth Amendment: Women's History Month, Part 24
After decades of struggle, the Nineteenth Amendment was ratified in 1920, recognizing the right of women to vote throughout the country, but not all women would be able to realize this right.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4578, The Woman Suffrage Procession of 1913: Women's History Month, Part 23
One day before the presidential inauguration of Woodrow Wilson, roughly 8,000 women's rights activists marched from the U.S. Capitol to the Treasury Department to demand the right to vote. Although marred by violence and racism, the aims of the marchers would be realized 7 years later with the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4577, Mary Church Terrell: Women's History Month, Part 22
Mary Church Terrell was an African American educator, women's rights campaigner, and civil rights activist.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4576, Marie Louise Bottineau Baldwin: Women's History Month, Part 21
Marie Louise Bottineau Baldwin was a Native American activist, attorney, and advocate of women's right to vote.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4575, Ida Tarbell: Women's History Month, Part 20
Ida Tarbell was a pioneering investigative journalist of the Progressive Era. Her 19-part series on Standard Oil Company would ultimately lead to the breakup of the company.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4574, Ida B. Wells: Women's History Month, Part 19
Ida B. Wells refused to march at the back of a women's suffrage parade. She refused to leave a first-class train car and sit in the section reserved for African Americans. And most importantly she refused to be silenced and courageously reported on lynchings of African Americans, risking her life and facing down numerous threats.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4573, Susan B. Anthony: Women's History Month, Part 18
After her trial for having voted in an 1872 election, Susan B. Anthony explained to the judge the implications of her conviction: andquot;My natural rights, my civil rights, my political rights, are all alike ignored. Robbed of the fundamental privilege of citizenship, I am degraded from the status of a citizen to that of a subject.andquot; Today, women in Rochester, New York, cover her grave with andquot;I Votedandquot; stickers.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4572, Elizabeth Cady Stanton: Women's History Month, Part 17
Elizabeth Cady Stanton is remembered for her persuasive oratorical skills, the power of her writing, her tireless advocacy of the right to vote for women and reform of laws that kept men and women on an unequal footing.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4571, The Seneca Falls Convention: Women's History Month, Part 16
In 1848, about 300 activists met in Seneca Falls, New York, for the first convention in the United States devoted to women's rights. They discussed Elizabeth Cady Stanton's proposed Declaration of Sentiments, which mirrored the language of the Declaration of Independence.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4570, The Forten Sisters: Women's History Month, Part 15
Margaretta, Harriet, and Sarah Forten were three powerful African American campaigners for the abolition and women's rights movements. Harriet and Sarah married members of another prominent abolitionist family, the Purvises. Harriet and her husband Robert were involved in the Underground Railroad, and their home served as a refuge for people who had escaped slavery and as a meeting place for abolitionists.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4569, Lucretia Mott: Women's History Month, Part 14
Lucretia Mott was one of the most well-known, active, and influential women's rights and anti-slavery activists in nineteenth-century America. She was a persuasive speaker at a time when public speaking by women was frowned upon. Not allowed to actively participate in the World Anti-Slavery Convention in London in 1840 because of their gender, Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton resolved to organize the 1848 Seneca Falls Convention, the first women's rights convention in the nation.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4568, Sarah and Angelina Grimke: Women's History Month, Part 13
Sarah and Angelina Grimke were among the first women to speak out in public in opposition to slavery. They were condemned for speaking out in public to andquot;promiscuousandquot; audiences; that is, audiences composed of both men and women. This prompted them to speak out more forcefully for equal rights for women. They lived long enough to see slavery abolished and the right of African American men to vote recognized, but universal women's suffrage would not be achieved until 1920, although Jim Crow laws would make it difficult or impossible for African Americans vote until the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4567, Beginning of the Women's Movement: Women's History Month, Part 12
The movement for equal rights for women in the United States had its beginnings in the movement to abolish slavery. In both movements, women would encounter vociferous and sometimes violent opposition.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4566, Federalism and Limited Government: Democratic Norms, Part 5
Federalism and limited government are principles that ensure that the American political system protects liberty and natural rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness as outlined in the Declaration of Independence. Listen to learn more from Dr. Bose in this final episode of the series!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4565, Separation of Powers: Checks and Balances: Democratic Norms, Part 4
To ensure that no individual or institution would have too much power in the American republic, the Framers of the Constitution designed a system of separation of powers and checks and balances. Learn more about these important checks on the power of government in this episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4564, The Rule of Law: Democratic Norms, Part 3
What makes a democracy function is the premise that no one is above the rule of law. But what does that mean? Learn more from Dr. Bose in today's episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4563, Civic Participation: Democratic Norms, Part 2
Civic participation undergirds American democracy. In fact, it is what makes American democracy thrive. Listen to Dr. Meena Bose explain this important democratic norm in this episode.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4562, Representative Government: Democratic Norms, Part 1
Today we start the first of our five-day series on democratic norms with Dr. Meena Bose, the Peter S. Kalikow Chair in Presidential Studies and Executive Dean for Public Policy and Public Service Programs at Hofstra University. In our first episode, Dr. Bose discusses representative government, which is a fundamental feature of American democracy. Listen to learn more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4561, Native American Women in the Colonial Era: Women's History Month, Part 6
Europeans were surprised that Native American women had so much power and influence, particularly within the Haudenosaunee nations. In those nations, women held political power within the tribes, appointing and removing chiefs at their discretion.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4560, Nanye'hi: Women's History Month, Part 5
Despite being known as the "War Woman of Chota," Nanye'hi, also known as Nancy Ward, was a Cherokee woman who would work for much of her life to ensure peace between the Cherokees and the Americans, while attempting to prevent the further seizure of Cherokee land.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4559, Elizabeth Freeman: Women's History Month, Part 4
Elizabeth Freeman, also known as Mum Bett, escaped slavery in a way that was unusual: she took her case to court. She approached lawyer Theodore Sedgwick with this question: andquot;I heard that paper read yesterday that says 'all men are born equal,' and that every man has a right to freedom ... won't the law give me my freedom?andquot; Appealing to her natural rights and her rights under the Massachusetts Constitution of 1780, she sued for her freedom and won.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4558, Ona Judge: Women's History Month, Part 3
Ona Judge escaped George and Martha Washington's household, where she was an enslaved housemaid, and made her way to Portsmouth, New Hampshire, where she eluded George Washington's determined attempts to capture her. She made a new life for herself in New Hampshire, marrying and having three children. Her side of her remarkable story survives because she gave interviews to at least two abolitionist newspapers.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4557, Coverture and the Colonial Era: Women's History Month, Part 2
A married woman living during the American colonial era would have lived under the legal doctrine called "coverture," where her legal identity was subsumed under that of her husband. William Blackstone wrote, "By marriage, the husband and wife are one person in the law: that is, the very being or legal existence of the woman is suspended during the marriage, or at least is incorporated and consolidated into that of the husband: under whose wing, protection, and cover, she performs every thing." This was governed by colonial law before independence and state law after independence. It would not change substantially after the Revolution in most states, but divorce and child custody laws would change.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4556, The Struggle for Equality: Women's History Month, Part 1
It's Women's History Month! All this month, 60-Second Civics will explain the struggle for equal rights for women and how our Constitution and laws evolved to make our nation a more representative democracy. In this episode, we briefly trace the struggle of women for equal voting rights in the United States.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4555, Sojourner Truth: Black History Month, Part 14
Sojourner Truth was a determined woman. She fled slavery, successfully sued to have her son returned to her in New York after he had been illegally sold to a slaveholder, and made a new life for herself. Truth was a prolific social activist, producing an autobiography, speaking out against slavery, and advocating for the right of women to vote. Two hundred years after her death, a robotic exploration vehicle called Sojourner, named after her, would land on Mars.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4554, The Importance of Civic Education: Dr. Vicki Ross-Norris, Part 10
In the final episode of our series with Dr. Ross-Norris, we ask: Why is civic education important?

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4553, How Young People Can Address Injustice: Dr. Vicki Ross-Norris, Part 9
In this episode, we ask Dr. Vicki Ross-Norris: How can young people get involved in addressing injustices today? She explains the importance of making your voice heard and of support from older generations.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4552, Traveling to Ghana: Dr. Vicki Ross-Norris, Part 8
While in college, Dr. Vicki Ross-Norris took a trip to Ghana that gave her and her classmates the opportunity to explore another culture and connect with their heritage. Listen to learn more about her experience!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4551, Racism and Policing in the 1940s: Dr. Vicki Ross-Norris, Part 7
Dr. Ross-Norris recounts an encounter her family had with the police while driving through South Carolina at night. Her experiences bring to light issues with racism and policing during that time

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4550, Important Figures in the Civil Rights Movement: Dr. Vicki Ross-Norris, Part 6
Throughout her life, Dr. Ross-Norris has interacted with several prominent civil rights leaders, including Dr. Dorothy Height and Rev. Fauntroy. Learn more how these figures inspired the next generation of civil rights leaders in today's episode.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4549, Maya Angelou and Her Role as a Citizen: Dr. Vicki Ross-Norris, Part 5
Maya Angelou, an African American poet and civil rights activist, used her artistic abilities to communicate the Black experience and serve as an instrument for others to understand African American culture. Listen as Dr. Vicki Ross-Norris recounts her interactions with Maya Angelou in today's episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4548, Historically Black Colleges and Universities: Dr. Vicki Ross-Norris, Part 4
Today we ask our guest Dr. Vicki Ross-Norris: Why are historically black colleges and universities important? In the episode, she shares her experience as a Howard University alumna and how attending an HBCU was significant to her as an African American.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4547, The Tuskegee Airmen: Dr. Vicki Ross-Norris, Part 3
In today's episode, Dr. Ross-Norris talks about the Tuskegee Airmen, a group her father belonged to and who taught her important lessons about civics and being an American.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4546, Learning About the African American Experience: Dr. Vicki Ross-Norris, Part 2
In February, we celebrate Black History Month. Today we ask Dr. Ross-Norris: Why should all Americans learn about the African American experience? Listen to learn why!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4545, Slavery and Our Nation's Founding: Dr. Vicki Ross-Norris, Part 1
This week, we are joined by a very special guest, Vicki Ross-Norris, an actress, educator, and member of the Center for Civic Education's board of directors. In our first episode, we ask her: Given that many of the Framers of the Constitution were slaveholders, how should Americans think about our nation's founding?

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4544, The Underground Railroad: Black History Month, Part 13
The Underground Railroad was a system of escape routes, safehouses, and committed anti-slavery activists who helped enslaved people escape to freedom in Canada. Thousands fled to freedom thanks to this multiracial movement led by free African Americans.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4543, Harriet Tubman: Black History Month, Part 12
Harriet Tubman's story is truly inspiring. Born a slave, she escaped to freedom, but later led dozens others to their freedom through the human network known as the Underground Railroad. When the Civil War began, she served as a spy, a nurse, and a guide. But that wasn't all. After the war, she advocated for the right of women to vote.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4541, Fugitive Slave Clause: Black History Month, Part 10
The fugitive slave clause was another compromise the Framers of the Constitution made to ensure that the Southern states would ratif the Constitution. This clause required that enslaved people who escaped be returned to the person who claimed them. This applied even to states where slavery would be outlawed, which would later stoke the outrage of abolitionists and raise tension between the North and the South.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4540, Three-Fifths Compromise: Black History Month, Part 9
The Three-Fifths Compromise counted enslaved people for purposes of representation, not to protect the interests of the enslaved people, but to advance the interests of the slaveholders. Here is how it happened: the Framers of the Constitution agreed that there should be proportional representation in the House of Representatives, but disagreed on whether to count enslaved people for purposes of representation. Southern states held many enslaved people in bondage, but Northern states held few. The two sides came to a compromise: they would count three out of every five enslaved people, hence the term \"Three-Fifths Compromise.\" Sadly, this would remain in the Constitution until the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment in 1868.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4539, The Constitution and Slavery: Black History Month, Part 8
Many of the Framers of the Constitution were ashamed of slavery, and carefully avoided using the words "slave" or "slavery" in the document. Nevertheless, the Framers protected slavery in the Constitution in order to accommodate the Southern states, which threatened to refuse to join the Union.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4538, African Americans in the American Revolution: Black History Month, Part 7
Enslaved African Americans faced difficult choices at the start of the Revolutionary War. The British royal governor of Virginia promised them freedom, and many joined the Loyalist cause. Up to 100,000 others fled across British lines. And yet about 5,000 served as soldiers in the Continental Army, serving valiantly. We'll learn some of their stories on today's podcast.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4537, Phillis Wheatley Peters: Black History Month, Part 6
Phillis Wheatley Peters was the first African American to publish a volume of poetry. She was born around 1753 and taken to the American colonies as a slave, but learned how to read and write, publishing her first poem at the age of thirteen. Her fame became international when her poems were published in London. She is remembered not only for her poetry, but also for inspiring abolitionists in America and Europe.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4536, The Declaration of Independence and Slavery: Black History Month, Part 5
The Declaration of Independence asserted that "all Men are created equal" and yet enslaved African Americans had been systematically deprived of their rights since at least 1619. Today we learn about the passages condemning slavery that were deleted from the Declaration of Independence.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4535, The Economics of Slavery: Black History Month, Part 4
The South became increasingly dependent on the labor of enslaved African Americans, especially after the invention of the cotton gin in 1793. Cotton was a main cash crop. This dependence on forced labor led to the refusal of the South to abolish slavery.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4534, Languages and Cultures of Enslaved Africans in America: Black History Month, Part 3
When enslaved Africans were forcibly brought to America, their names were changed by slaveholders and they were often forbidden to speak their native languages. Nevertheless, these rich cultures were never entirely suppressed, and their influence can be seen in the United States today.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4533, Introduction of Slavery to America: Black History Month, Part 2
More than 10 million enslaved Africans would be forcibly transported to the New Word, and at least 250,000 would be taken to the United States. Slavery would not be confined to the South. Slavery was eventually practiced in every American colony.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4532, All Men Are Created Equal: Black History Month, Part 1
Despite the assurance of the Declaration of Independence that "all men are created equal" the Declaration did not recognize the freedom of enslaved people. And although the Constitution did not mention the word "slavery," it contained provisions that ensured its survival. Nevertheless, the story of the more than 400 years since slavery was first introduced into the thirteen colonies is one of expanding rights and greater equality for all Americans.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4531, Human Equality and Government by Consent: The Road to Independence, Part 19
The Declaration of Independence made arguments based on human equality and government by consent, among other things. Listen to learn more about these important concepts!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4530, Ideas in the Declaration of Independence: The Road to Independence, Part 18
The Declaration of Independence contains ideas and arguments for independence that can be divided into several categories: natural rights, human equality, government by consent, the "long train of abuses" by King George III, and finally, the right to revolution. Listen for more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4529, The Declaration of Independence: The Road to Independence, Part 17
The Declaration of Independence announced the final, momentous step in the colonists' resistance to the British government by rejecting the sovereignty, or authority, of the Crown. Learn more about this declaration in today's episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4528, The Revolution Begins: The Road to Independence, Part 16
The battles of Lexington and Concord began the war between America and Britain. In August 1775 Britain declared the colonies to be in a state of rebellion. Within a year, the Americans would officially declare their independence. Listen to learn more about this evolution!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4527, Concord Hymn: The Road to Independence, Part 15
"The shot heard 'round the world" is a line in the poem Concord Hymn describing the effect of the outbreak of the American Revolution in April 1775. Learn more in today's podcast!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4526, Lexington and Concord: The Road to Independence, Part 14
By 1774 many of the more radical colonists were beginning to prepare for war against Great Britain. These colonists formed civilian militias. On April 19, 1775, some 700 British troops tried to march to Concord, Massachusetts. Listen for more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4525, First Continental Congress: The Road to Independence, Part 13
Colonists formed committees of correspondence to publicize colonial opposition and coordinate resistance. In 1774 colonies sent representatives to Philadelphia to discuss potential responses to the British government. The meeting was called the First Continental Congress.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4524, The Intolerable Acts: The Road to Independence, Part 12
Following the Boston Tea Party, the British government responded with what colonists called the Intolerable Acts, a series of Punitive Acts that, among other things, closed Boston Harbor to all trade.Listen to today?s episode to learn more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4523, John Adams and the Boston Massacre: The Road to Independence, Part 11
Controversial at the time, lawyer and later president John Adams defended the British soldiers and their captain following the Boston Massacre. Learn more about his motivation for doing this in today's episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4522, The Boston Massacre: The Road to Independence, Part 10
On the night of March 5, 1770, a riot broke out and shots were fired in what would later be known as the ???Boston Massacre.??? Learn more about this important event in today???s episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4521, Daughters of Liberty: The Road to Independence, Part 9
After repealing the hated Stamp Act in 1766, the British Parliament passed the Declaratory Act, asserting Great Britain's full power and authority over the American colonies. In response a group of American women calling themselves the Daughters of Liberty led boycotts of English goods. Listen for more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4520, The Townshend Acts: The Road to Independence, Part 8
The Townshend Acts are a now-infamous group of duties passed by Parliament in June 1767. They levied new taxes on items imported from Britain, which came with significant consequences. Learn more in today's episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4519, The Stamp Act Congress: The Road to Independence, Part 7
The Stamp Act Congress was held in October 1765 in New York to coordinate colonial resistance to the unpopular Stamp Act, which required nearly every important document printed in the colonies to be taxed. Hear more about this significant occurrence in today's episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4518, The Sons of Liberty: The Road to Independence, Part 6
Opposition to the Stamp Act prompted American colonists to organize. The Sons of Liberty was one group created to resist the Stamp Act inspired by the words of Isaac Barre. Learn more about this group in today's episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4517, The Stamp and Quartering Acts: The Road to Independence, Part 5
The British Parliament passed two highly unpopular laws in 1765: the Stamp Act and the Quartering Act. Listen to today's episode to learn more about these influential acts!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4516, The Stamp Act: The Road to Independence, Part 4
The British government sought to raise more revenue from the thirteen American colonies by introducing the Stamp Act in 1765. Learn more about the Stamp Act in today's episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4515, The Sugar Act: The Road to Independence, Part 3
The American colonists were already unhappy with the British about the Proclamation of 1763. But then they took another step that angered Americans. In 1764, Parliament passed the Sugar Act. Learn more in today's episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4514, The Proclamation of 1763: The Road to Independence, Part 2
Britain increased its control over the American colonies after 1763 following its victory over the French in the Seven Years' War, including with acts such as the Proclamation of 1763. Learn more about the implications of this in today's episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4513, Salutary Neglect: The Road to Independence, Part 1
For more than 150 years before 1776, the American colonists had grown used to little direct interference by Parliament in colonial affairs. This policy was known as "salutary neglect," but changes to this policy would initiate the focus of our new series: The Road to Independence!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4512, Equality and the American Mind: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 20
Where did the idea of universal human equality, a common American idea, come from? Religious movements in colonial America helped spread the idea of universal moral human equality, including equality among social classes. Listen to today's podcast for more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4511, Stoicism, Christianity, and Moral Equality: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 19
On Friday, we discussed the origins of Americans' sense of political equality, but our founders also possessed a strong sense of moral equality. Indeed, the idea of the moral equality of human beings has ancient origins. Listen to today's episode for more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4510, Americans' Sense of Political Equality: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 18
The Declaration of Independence states that all men, meaning all people, are created equal. But where did this idea come from? Ideas of natural political equality were developed in seventeenth-century England and exported to its colonies across the North Atlantic. Learn more in today's episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4509, "All Men Are Created Equal:" The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 17
The Declaration of Independence states that among the "truths" that Americans hold to be "self-evident" is that "all Men are created equal." But what did Thomas Jefferson mean by this statement?

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4508, The American Creed: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 16
Thomas Jefferson said that his purpose in writing the Declaration of Independence was to express a shared understanding of "the American mind." Over the course of a few days in June 1776, Jefferson laid out the most fundamental principles and central political beliefs of the American Revolution and of the people the Revolution created.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4507, Why Americans Held These Truths to Be Self-evident: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Govt. in the Colonies, Part 15
Why did the writers of the Declaration of Independence andquot;hold these Truths to be self-evident?andquot; Among other things, these Americans were deeply influenced by the teachings of Christianity and English republicanism.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4506, The Meaning of Self-Evident Truths: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Govt. in the Colonies, Part 14
The second paragraph of the Declaration of Independence begins like this: andquot;We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness.andquot; But what does andquot;We hold these truths to be self-evidentandquot; mean? We explain more in today's episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4504, Qualifying to Vote in Early America: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 11
In the American colonies, the right to vote followed the British model: only free adult males who owned a certain amount of property could vote, though there were limited exceptions to this rule. Listen to learn more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4503, Qualifying to Vote in Early America: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 11
In the American colonies, the right to vote followed the British model: only free adult males who owned a certain amount of property could vote, though there were limited exceptions to this rule. Listen to learn more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4502, Voting Rights in Colonial America: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 10
Voting rights in colonial America depended on the ownership of property. In other words, a person had to own a certain amount of land, livestock, or other property in order to qualify to vote. Listen to learn more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4501, Representative Democracy in Colonial America: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 9
Each of the thirteen American colonies had some features of representative democracy that we still see today. For example, each of the colonies had a legislative, executive, and judicial branch.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4500, The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 8
The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut is an important American founding document. The Connecticut Colony has its origins in 1636, when Thomas Hooker led a group of dissenting Puritans from Massachusetts to the Connecticut Valley. Learn why this document was so revolutionary in today's episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4499, The Massachusetts Body of Liberties: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 7
Americans have had a tradition of written guarantees of rights since the time of the thirteen colonies. The Massachusetts Body of Liberties of 1641 provides a good example.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4498, Written Guarantees of Rights: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 6
Despite the presence of indentured servitude and slavery in colonial America, many Americans enjoyed written guarantees of their rights.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4497, Slavery in Colonial America: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 5
Slavery was present in the thirteen American colonies since at least the early 1600s. Until slavery was abolished in the mid-nineteenth century, almost 12 million Africans were transported against their will to America. Listen to today's podcast to learn more about the foundations of slavery in the US.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4496, Indentured Servitude in Colonial America: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 4
Land was plentiful in the thirteen American colonies, but labor was scarce. It was also expensive to sail from Britain to America. This reality created incentives for indentured servitude. Learn more about these colonists in today's episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4495, The Southern Colonies: The Basic Ideas of Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 3
The mostly rural and agricultural southern colonies differed a great deal from both the New England and Middle Colonies. Learn how in today's episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4494, The Middle Colonies: Basic Ideas of Rights & Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 2
America's Middle Colonies included today's states of Delaware, New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. The Middle Colonies different in important ways from the New England colonies. Learn about these key differences in today's episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4493, The New England Colonies: Basic Ideas of Rights and Constitutional Government in the Colonies, Part 1
The American colonies can be divided into three regions: New England, the Middle Colonies, and the Southern Colonies. At the time of American independence, in 1776, the New England colonies were Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts. Learn more about this group of colonies in today's episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4492, The Mayflower Compact: Ideas that Informed the American Founders, Part 67
The Mayflower Compact is seen as an example of the social contract theory, which meant that the colonists consented to be governed under mutually agreed-upon laws for the general good of the Colony. Listen to today's episode to learn more about this famous agreement!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4491, The Voyage of the Mayflower: Ideas that Informed the American Founders, Part 66
In 1620, a ship called the Mayflower embarked on a long and perilous journey from Plymouth, England, to the New World. Learn more about this famous voyage in today's podcast!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4490, The Jamestown Colony: Ideas that Informed the American Founders, Part 65
The Jamestown colony is one of the most famous British colonies in the New World. Learn about the origins and outcomes for this colony is today's episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4489, The Race to Colonize North America: Ideas that Informed the American Founders, Part 64
In the early seventeenth century, Britain sought to compete with Spain, France, and the Netherlands, which had already established colonies in the New World. Listen to today's podcast to learn more about this struggle between global powers!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4488, Early English Settlements: Ideas that Informed the American Founders, Part 63
In the early 1600s, competition to settle North America was heating up between the major European powers. Spain, France, and The Netherlands each claimed territory in what would eventually become the United States.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4487, Early Settlement of North America: Ideas that Informed the American Founders, Part 62
The first known European settlement in North America was a small, short-lived Viking community at L'Anse aux Meadows, in what is now Newfoundland, Canada. Of course, for thousands of years, major Native American settlements existed in what would become the United States. Listen to learn more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4486, The British Constitution: Ideas that Informed the American Founders, Part 61
Unlike the American Constitution, the British constitution is not entirely written down. Instead, the British constitution is composed of common law, acts of Parliament, court decisions, and long-established practices and traditions. Listen to today's podcast for more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4485, The Model Parliament of Edward I: Ideas that Informed the American Founders, Part 60
The word Parliament comes from the French word parler, or to speak. This points to the origins of the British Parliament as a body that would advise the king, and later approve his proposals. Listen to today's podcast for more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4484, Simon de Montfort's Parliaments of 1265: Ideas that Informed the American Founders, Part 59
Simon de Montfort's Parliaments of 1265 were the first Parliaments that brought in representatives from the towns and cities of England, along with knights, who represented counties. Listen to learn more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4483, King Henry III and the Rise of Parliament: Ideas that Informed the American Founders, Part 58
During the Reign of Henry III, Parliament grew in power. Learn more about this important period for the growth of legislative bodies in today's episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4482, The Significance of the Magna Carta: Ideas that Informed the American Founders, Part 57
Magna Carta means "Great Charter," and it contained significant limits, at least in theory, on the power of the king. Listen to today's podcast to learn more about this document, which was highly influential on the American colonists and British law!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4481, King John Agrees to the Magna Carta: Ideas that Informed the American Founders, Part 56
The Magna Carta is a charter of rights that eventually came to be recognized as a foundation of English statutory law. Learn more about the history behind this historic document in today's episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4480, The Charter of Liberties: Ideas that Informed the American Founders, Part 55
An important event in the establishment of limited government occurred in the year 1100 when the Charter of Liberties was issued. Listen to today???s episode to learn more!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4479, Origins of the House of Commons: Ideas that Informed the American Founders, Part 54
The House American Congress somewhat resembles the ancient bodies from Anglo-Saxon times. Learn more in today's episode about these origins, including what they have evolved into for the modern British model of government.

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4478, The Witan: Ideas that Informed the American Founders, Part 53
Before the Norman invasion of England in 1066, the Anglo-Saxon kings called together a group of advisors called a Witan. Learn more today!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4477, Writs and Courts of Equity: Ideas that Informed the American Founders, Part 52
The Normans introduced the system of writs to English law. Soon the Normans found that controversies arose over the interpretations of writs.??They, therefore, introduced courts of equity, also known as Chancery courts, named after the king's chancellor. Learn more about these influential decisions in today???s podcast!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4476, What the Norman Invasion Meant: Ideas that Informed the American Founders, Part 51
What did the Norman invasion mean for Anglo-Saxon England? We'll explore the influence of William the Conqueror and the Norman rule in today's episode!

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60-Second Civics: Episode 4475, The Norman Invasion of 1066: Ideas that Informed the American Founders, Part 50
After the Anglo-Saxon king of England, Edward the Confessor, died in January 1066, an Anglo-Saxon aristocrat, Harold Godwinson, assumed the throne. There was a slight problem. William, Duke of Normandy, claimed that Edward had promised him the crown.

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